Software Engineering Lab CS791


                                       Assignment-1
UNIVERSITY ADMISSION SYSTEM
ER DIAGRAM-
An ER diagram is a means of visualizing how the information a system produces is related. There are five main components of an ERD:
Entities, which are represented by rectangles. An entity is an object or concept about which you want to store information.Entity - ERD SymbolA weak entity is an entity that must defined by a foreign key relationship with another entity as it cannot be uniquely identified by its own attributes alone.Weak entity - ERD Symbol
Actions, which are represented by diamond shapes, show how two entities share information in the database.Action - ERD SymbolIn some cases, entities can be self-linked. For example, employees can supervise other employees.
Self-linked Action - ERD Symbol
Attributes, which are represented by ovals. A key attribute is the unique, distinguishing characteristic of the entity. For example, an employee’s social security number might be the employee’s key attribute.
Attribute - ERD SymbolA multivalued attribute can have more than one value. For example, an employee entity can have multiple skill values.Multi-valued Attribute - ERD SymbolA derived attribute is based on another attribute. For example, an employee’s monthly salary is based on the employee’s annual salary.Derived Attribute - ERD Symbol
Connecting lines, solid lines that connect attributes to show the relationships of entities in the diagram.
Cardinality specifies how many instances of an entity relate to one instance of another entity. Ordinality is also closely linked to cardinality. While cardinality specifies the occurrences of a relationship, ordinality describes the relationship as either mandatory or optional. In other words, cardinality specifies the maximum number of relationships and ordinality specifies the absolute minimum number of relationships.
2.DFD-Data flow diagram is graphical representation of flow of data in an information system. It is capable of depicting incoming data flow, outgoing data flow and stored data. The DFD does not mention anything about how data flows through the system.
DFD Components
DFD can represent Source, destination, storage and flow of data using the following set of components –
DFD Components
Entities – Entities are source and destination of information data. Entities are represented by a rectangles with their respective names.
Process – Activities and action taken on the data are represented by Circle or Round-edged rectangles.
Data Storage – There are two variants of data storage – it can either be represented as a rectangle with absence of both smaller sides or as an open-sided rectangle with only one side missing.
Data Flow – Movement of data is shown by pointed arrows. Data movement is shown from the base of arrow as its source towards head of the arrow as destination.
  • Level 0 – Highest abstraction level DFD is known as Level 0 DFD, which depicts the entire information system as one diagram concealing all the underlying details. Level 0 DFDs are also known as context level DFDs.
  • Level 1 – The Level 0 DFD is broken down into more specific, Level 1 DFD. Level 1 DFD depicts basic modules in the system and flow of data among various modules. Level 1 DFD also mentions basic processes and sources of information.
Level 2 – At this level, DFD shows how data flows inside the modules mentioned in Level 1.
Higher level DFDs can be transformed into more specific lower level DFDs with deeper level of understanding unless the desired level of specification is achieved.
USE CASE DIAGRAM
Use case diagrams are used to gather the requirements of a system including internal and external influences. These requirements are mostly design requirements. Hence, when a system is analyzed to gather its functionalities, use cases are prepared and actors are identified.
When the initial task is complete, use case diagrams are modelled to present the outside view.
In brief, the purposes of use case diagrams can be said to be as follows −
·        Used to gather the requirements of a system.
·        Used to get an outside view of a system.
·        Identify the external and internal factors influencing the system.
·        Show the interaction among the requirements are actors.
·          
·          
·          


·         Flowchart: Terminator:     Manage StudentsFlowchart: Terminator:         Update My ProfileFlowchart: Terminator:       Change Account passwordFlowchart: Terminator:            Pay FeesFlowchart: Terminator:     Request for AdmissionFlowchart: Terminator:        Search collegesFlowchart: Terminator:      Manage RegistrationFlowchart: Terminator:     Manage SemesterFlowchart: Terminator: Login and Logout from systemFlowchart: Terminator:       Create Fees ReceiptsFlowchart: Terminator:          Add AdmissionFlowchart: Terminator:     Manage CoursesFlowchart: Terminator:      Manage Faculties                  

Student

 

system User

 

 


CLASS DIAGRAM- class diagram in the Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a type of static structure diagram that describes the structure of a system by showing the system’s classes, their attributes, operations (or methods), and the relationships among objects.
SEQUENCE DIAGRAM-
Sequence diagrams are a popular dynamic modeling solution. Dynamic modeling focuses on the interactions occurring within the system. Sequence diagrams specifically focus on the “lifelines” of an object and how they communicate with other objects to perform a function before the lifeline ends. Make your own sequence diagram using our UML diagram tool.
                                               Assignment-2
HOSPITAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
USE CASE DIAGRAM
Use case diagrams are used to gather the requirements of a system including internal and external influences. These requirements are mostly design requirements. Hence, when a system is analyzed to gather its functionalities, use cases are prepared and actors are identified.
When the initial task is complete, use case diagrams are modelled to present the outside view.
In brief, the purposes of use case diagrams can be said to be as follows −
·        Used to gather the requirements of a system.
·        Used to get an outside view of a system.
·        Identify the external and internal factors influencing the system.
·        Show the interaction among the requirements are actors.
SEQUENCE DIAGRAM-
Sequence diagrams are a popular dynamic modeling solution. Dynamic modeling focuses on the interactions occurring within the system. Sequence diagrams specifically focus on the “lifelines” of an object and how they communicate with other objects to perform a function before the lifeline ends. Make your own sequence diagram using our UML diagram tool.
ACTIVITY DIAGRAM-
Activity diagram is basically a flowchart to represent the flow from one activity to another activity. The activity can be described as an operation of the system.
The control flow is drawn from one operation to another. This flow can be sequential, branched, or concurrent. Activity diagrams deal with all type of flow control by using different elements such as fork, join, etc
The purpose of an activity diagram can be described as −
·        Draw the activity flow of a system.
·        Describe the sequence from one activity to another.
·        Describe the parallel, branched and concurrent flow of the system.
                               Assignment-3
                RAILWAY RESERVATION SYSTEM
USE CASE DIAGRAM
Use case diagrams are used to gather the requirements of a system including internal and external influences. These requirements are mostly design requirements. Hence, when a system is analyzed to gather its functionalities, use cases are prepared and actors are identified.
When the initial task is complete, use case diagrams are modelled to present the outside view.
In brief, the purposes of use case diagrams can be said to be as follows −
·        Used to gather the requirements of a system.
·        Used to get an outside view of a system.
·        Identify the external and internal factors influencing the system.
·        Show the interaction among the requirements are actors.
2. COLLABORATION DIAGRAM-
A collaboration diagram resembles a flowchart that portrays the roles, functionality and behavior of individual objects as well as the overall operation of the system in real time. Objects are shown as rectangles with naming labels inside. These labels are preceded by colons and may be underlined. The relationships between the objects are shown as lines connecting the rectangles. The messages between objects are shown as arrows connecting the relevant rectangles along with labels that define the message sequencing.
Collaboration diagrams are best suited to the portrayal of simple interactions among relatively small numbers of objects. As the number of objects and messages grows, a collaboration diagram can become difficult to read. Several vendors offer software for creating and editing collaboration diagrams.

 

                                                                       2:Request form

 

                : passenger
                       
         1:View train details                                                                                                        : Reserve from                                                              
           8:Request for cancelation
          5:Unavailable                                                3: Submit form
          6:Issue Ticket
 10:Issue ticket cancelation                   4: Checking    
                                                                     7: Store in db                                                                             9:Checking                                                9: Checking
                                                                   11: Store in db     
                                                                                                                                         
: Reserve Controller                                                                                                            : Reserve db                                                                     
             Collaboration diagram for railway ticket reservation system
3.STATECHART DIAGRAM
Statechart diagram describes the flow of control from one state to another state. States are defined as a condition in which an object exists and it changes when some event is triggered. The most important purpose of Statechart diagram is to model lifetime of an object from creation to termination.
Statechart diagrams are also used for forward and reverse engineering of a system. However, the main purpose is to model the reactive system.
Following are the main purposes of using Statechart diagrams −
·        To model the dynamic aspect of a system.
·        To model the life time of a reactive system.
·        To describe different states of an object during its life time.
·        Define a state machine to model the states of an object
4. CLASS DIAGRAM- class diagram in the Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a type of static structure diagram that describes the structure of a system by showing the system’s classes, their attributes, operations (or methods), and the relationships among objects.

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